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Ceramic Raw Materials in Ukraine

До переліку публікацій

I. Pyzhuk, State Committee on Reserves of Ukraine;
I. Shepel, Ukrgeoprojekt LTD

Ceramic Raw Materials in Ukraine

Ukraine is exceptionally rich in ceramic raw materials, mining and utilizing them in large quantities. Output of mineral commodities, especially kaolin, feldspar and refractory clays, greatly increased during the last 5-7 years.
Based on data of the State Balance of Reserves, generalized in Table given below, Ukraine possesses reserves of all kinds of ceramic feedstock ready for commercial mining for more, than 100 years. Deposits of kaolin (mostly primary and epigenetic) are widespread within the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield. The State Balance includes reserves of primary kaolin at 29 deposits, of the epigenetic and alkaline ones – respectively at 8 and 6 deposits; 24 kaolin deposits are mined now.
Ukraine ranks the first in the world as to the explored kaolin reserves (438 million tons of B + C1 and 670 million tons of C2 categories). Kaolin resources of the country are practically inexhaustible: 4.5 billion tons of P1 + P2 and 40 billion tons of P3 categories. Kaolin reserves and resources of Western Europe are less by an order of magnitude, totaling 3.5 billion tons. Primary kaolin province of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield stretches from the Ukrainian border with Belarus to the Azov Sea for 950 km, being 350 km wide.
Feldspar feedstock is rather widespread too, being represented by three types: granite pegmatite, feldspar intrusive rocks and feldspar-bearing sands of kaolin deposits. The State Balance of Reserves books 10 deposits of feldspar feedstock, including 7 pegmatite bodies. As of today, 4 feldspar deposits are mined.
Refractory clays contain alumina in the amount of up to 40%, most often 15-20 %. Detrimental impurities include iron oxides and large quartz grains. Refractory clays have high resistance to fire (exceeding 1580?С), plasticity, toughness and wide range of baking. Refractory clays are used as a feedstock by metallurgical, machine building, ceramic and other industries. The State Balance of Reserves books 22 deposits of refractory clays in Ukraine, 15 of which are mined.
High-melting clays are of high resistance to fire (1350-1580?С) and plasticity, having wide range of baking. The State Balance of Reserves includes 23 deposits, 10 of which are mined now.

Ukrainian companies manufacture the following ceramic products:

Bricks: about 3 billion pieces (60 % – ceramic bricks) are produced in Ukraine per year. Leading manufacturer of ceramic bricks is Slobozhanska Building Ceramics, which produces more than 40 kinds of bricks of large color scale. Facing bricks are imported from Russia, Latvia, Finland and Germany.
Ceramic tile market in Ukraine is growing quickly (by 20-25% per year). In 2007, its volume made about 65 million m2. All Ukrainian producers work in the lower price segment (their tiles average up to 8 USD/m2), the more expensive tiles being imported. Countries exporting tiles in Ukraine are Poland, Belarus, Spain, China, Turkey, Russia, Czech Republic and Italy.


Fig. 1: Major producers of ceramic tiles in Ukraine
(Based on data of the State Committee on Statistics, 2005)


Sanitary ware: about 3 million pieces of sanitary ware are manufactured in Ukraine now, the largest producer being Slavutsky Combine Budfarfor CJSC, which ranks 11th in the world among the largest sanitary ware producers. That market is steadily growing by 15-20% per annum.


Table 1: Production dynamics and reserve balance of various raw materials for ceramic industry

Mineral commodity

Unit

Production, by year

Balance reserve,

as of January 1, 2008.

Beyond balance reserves

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

А+В+С1

С2

Kaolin:

thou. t

1,295

1,269

1,482

1,044

1,717

1,808

1,907

1,931

2,370

477,872

670,104

50,578

     Primary

thou. t

628

493

513

614

628

755

832

937

1,120

359,103

601,510

43,017

     Epigenetic

thou. t

642

740

942

417

1,034

1,003

1,016

917

1,097

77,862

18,466

5,266

     Alkaline

thou. t

25

36

27

13

55

50

59

77

153

40,907

50,128

2,295

Feldspar feedstock

 

thou. t

 

11.0

 

9.0

 

87.0

 

13.0

 

12.76

 

48.8

 

85.6

 

65.4

 

71.1

 

50,069

 

152,561

 

235

Refractory clay

million t

2.299

3.443

3.462

3.142

3.875

4.259

5.678

5.801

6.207

527,972

406,359

40,913

High-melting clay

million t

0.477

0.236

0.423

0.747

0.417

0.531

0.566

0.658

0.471

98,812

72,788

3,316

Claydite feedstock

 million m3

0.107

0.106

0.144

0.103

0.302

0.208

0.192

0.462

0.187

328

32

-

Brick and tile clays

 million m3

2.189

2.495

1.886

2.289

2.977

3.212

4.068

4.652

4.880

2,419

182

93

Dolomite for metallurgical industry

 

million t

 

0.699

 

0.74

 

0.647

 

0.755

 

0.697

 

0.742

 

0.762

 

0.761

 

1.906

 

338

 

43

 

1

Bentonite clay

thou. t

127

145

139

112

165

202

511

492

402

62,321

221

1,415

Kyanite + sillimanite

thou. t

79.0

83.5

85.6

71.0

108.5

106.4

98.3

107.4

106.0

4,506

44

840

 
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